what is cancer? and how it is cured in twenty-first century

In this article, we will be discussing what is cancer? and how it is cured or treated? The widely spread disease which is present all over the world and also considered as one of the most terrifying diseases in the world is actually the disturbance in the cell cycle. Every cell in our body has all the basic information inside the nucleus in the particular polymers generally known as DNA (De oxy Ribose nucleic acid ). The DNA contains information about how we look, and what type of function the specific cell should do. There is also information about when a cell should divide and when it should die.

When the cell cycle of a particular cell is disturbed it divides extensively into an unorganized and unwanted mass of cells. This mass of cells is called a Tumor. A tumor is of two types which are described below.


Benign Tumor

what is cancer?

benign tumors

It is the type of tumor which in most cases is not deleterious ( harmful ). Usually, they are of small size and localized which means that this type of tumor once formed in a body does not spread to other regions of the body. A benign tumor is dangerous when formed in glands and other vital organs of the body.

Surgical pathways are often taken in order to remove the tumor. If the tumor is small and not growing then you have not to bother about it however surgery or radiosurgery are used for tumors which are still growing. Radiosurgery is effective in most of the cases. Once a benign tumor is removed it does not grow again. 

Malignant Tumor-cancer

Malignant Tumors

Malignant Tumors


These type of tumor is very harmful and they are also known as a cancerous tumor. They are not localized and when they are formed in one place soon spreads to other parts of the body. This property of spreading from the area of their growth to other regions is termed as Metastasis.

They can also spread through the blood to other vital parts of the body which is evident and better explained in the above picture. The cancerous cell and the normal cell are different in many ways. Unlike the normal cells, cancerous cells lose the property to adhere with other neighboring cells which are the main factor for their spreading. Normal cells have quite a specific cycle for their death and division while cancerous cell divides extensively and have many mitosis.

Actually, cancer is more than 200 types which are named and classified on which tissue they are formed but for simplicity, it is classified into four categories. Cancer in outer or inner coverings of the body (epithelial tissues) is called CARCINOMAS. E.g. When it is in outer skin or in the linings of the esophagus, stomach, trachea, etc. In supporting, tissues like bone and muscle cancer are called SARCOMAS. Cancer in the blood producing tissues such as bone marrow and spleen is called LEUKEMIAS. Cancer in lymph nodes is called as LYMPHOMAS.


Cancer can be cured by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Both use the same strategy that is to stop the growth and multiplication of cancer cells. In radiotherapy, highly energetic rays are passed through the body which kills the cancer cells thus stopping them from spreading. In chemotherapy, medicines are used to kill the cells.

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